Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. This is contrary to the suggestion that the spread of agriculture disseminated out of the Fertile Crescent by way of sharing of knowledge. This desert-bay is a limestone plateau of some height—too high indeed to be watered by the Tigris and Euphrates, which have cut cañons obliquely across it. In turn, this area was divided into historic Syria and historic Palestine. [11], Both the Tigris and Euphrates start in the Taurus Mountains of what is modern-day Turkey. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. The ancient countries of the Fertile Crescent, such as Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, and Phoenicia, are regarded as some of the world’s earliest complex societies. Instead the view now supported by a preponderance of the evidence is that it occurred by actual migration out of the region, coupled with subsequent interbreeding with indigenous local populations whom the migrants came in contact with. Some authors also include Cyprus. In the valleys, the water was more than plentiful enough to support wildlife, and the area between them had become a country of lakes and marshes, abundant with fish and game, but of little use to human life. [16][18][19][20][21][22][23] Similar arguments do not hold true, however, for the Basques and Canary Islanders of the same time period, as the studies demonstrate those ancient peoples to be "clearly associated with modern Europeans". The Fertile Crescent includes parts of the modern countries of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan. In which of the following present-day countries did the ancient Mesopotamian civilization develop? [16], The studies show also that not all present day Europeans share strong genetic affinities to the Neolithic and Bronze Age inhabitants of the Fertile Crescent;[16] instead the closest ties to the Fertile Crescent rest with Southern Europeans. Instead the view now supported by a preponderance of the evidence is that it occurred by actual migration out of the region, coupled with subsequent interbreeding with indigenous local populations whom the migrants came in contact with. Fertile Crescent Countries. Code of Ethics. However, given lack of textual evidence for the earliest era of prehistory, this debate is unlikely to be resolved in the near future. Mesopotamia is thought to be one of the places where early civilization developed. What countries make up the Fertile Crescent. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Most importantly, the Fertile Crescent was home to the eight Neolithic founder crops important in early agriculture (i.e., wild progenitors to emmer wheat, einkorn, barley, flax, chick pea, pea, lentil, bitter vetch), and four of the five most important species of domesticated animals—cows, goats, sheep, and pigs; the fifth species, the horse, lived nearby. It is in the current countries of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, and Jordan. Now the depleation of those resources has led to strife in the Middle East. Bar-Yosef O (1987), "Pleistocene connections between Africa and SouthWest Asia: an archaeological perspective", Findings include remains of food items carried to the, Last edited on 14 November 2020, at 19:15, "Earliest man, the Orient, Greece, and Rome", "Ancient Fig Find May Push Back Birth of Agriculture", "Genographic Project: The Development of Agriculture", "The near eastern origin of cat domestication", "The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East, "Y Haplogroups, Archaeological Cultures and Language Families: a Review of the Multidisciplinary Comparisons using the case of E-M35", "Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model", Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans, Dupanloup et al., 2004, "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area", "Paleolithic and Neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool", "Clines of nuclear DNA markers suggest a largely Neolithic ancestry of the European gene", 10.1002/(sici)1520-6505(1998)6:5<159::aid-evan4>3.0.co;2-7, Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 Years, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fertile_Crescent&oldid=988699471, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.