The Avignon festival was started in 1947 by Jean Vilar who was also important in the creation of the T.N.P. 1841 - 1919 Auguste Renoir born in Limoges, 1844 The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas, 1852 - 1870 2nd Empire Napoleon III ( he dies in England in 1873), 1858 The vision of Bernadette Soubrious at Lourdes, 1870 The battle of Sedan, Napoleon III surrenders to Prussian and France loses the Alsace and Lorraine regions, 1894 The affair Dreyfus, accused of treason, 1889 World Expo at Paris with the Eiffel Tower, 1899 Renault begin to construct automobiles, 1905 The law separates the state from the church, 1938 Jean-Paul Sartre publishes La Nausée. He was succeeded by the Gaullist Georges Pompidou (1969–74), who died during his term. LIP workers participated in the Larzac demonstrations against the extension of a military camp (in which José Bové was present). After an initial period of double-dealing and passive collaboration with the Nazis, the Vichy regime passed to active participation (largely the work of prime minister Pierre Laval). Parker is steadying his company of colonial militia and on the other the vanguard of the King’s Own 10th Regiment of Foot is marching into sight.”, We deal with the French historical present tense by translating it into a past tense in English. The country of France emerged from the fragmentation of the larger Carolingian empire, when Hugh Capet became King of West Francia in 987. This led France to invade and occupy the Ruhr industrial district of Germany.  In addition, there was a steady immigration, especially from former French colonies in North Africa. With immigration from poorer countries, these "cités" have been the center of racial and class tensions since the 1960s. 1814 The Restoration, where the monarchy regains powers. In 1965, in an occasion marking the first time in the 20th century that the people of France went to the polls to elect a president by direct ballot, de Gaulle won re-election with a 55% share of the vote, defeating François Mitterrand. This kingdom consolidated power and expanded territorially, becoming known as “France.” Early wars were fought over land with English monarchs, including the Hundred Years War, then against the Habsburgs, especially after the latter inherited Spain and appeared to surround France. Click the image for FLD podcast episodes. King Louis XIV (1638–1715): Louis XIV succeeded to the French throne as a minor in 1642 and ruled until 1715; for many contemporaries, he was the only monarch they ever knew.Louis was the apogee of French absolutist rule and the pageantry and success of his reign earned him the epithet ‘The Sun King’. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2018.  He has also pledged to act against companies employing cheaper labour from eastern Europe and in return affecting jobs of French workers, what he has termed as "social dumping". He arrested Joseph Caillaux, a former French prime minister, for openly advocating peace negotiations. Prémisse indélébile de maturité dans le temps en prise directe avec le présent historique.  Macron's reform efforts have encountered resistance from some French trade unions. A man named Forestier was the first to set the fastest climbing record of the tower. trompe l'œil : trick the eye: A painting style that uses perspective to trick the eye into thinking it is real. English (a) Present historical events from various points of view and in an objective manner; Its senior leaders acquiesced in the plunder of French resources, as well as the sending of French forced labor to Nazi Germany; in doing so, they claimed they hoped to preserve at least some small amount of French sovereignty. In these documents, the writers use the present tense (and thereby avoid repeated use of the passé composé and imparfait) to describe events that occurred sometime earlier. Welcome to the 17th episode of the French Language Division’s Continuing Education Series. The post-war years would bring a massive "baby boom", and with immigration, France reached 50 million in 1968. a pacifist, was assassinated at the start of the war, the French socialist movement abandoned its antimilitarist positions and joined the national war effort.